Chronic Pain and Addiction: Challenging Co-occurring Disorders

Abstract—Chronic pain is commonly treated by prescribing an opiate medication. For those suffering from both chronic pain and substance dependence, barriers to adequate pain management increase. This often causes both disorders to exacerbate one another. Effective treatment may also be hampered by opiate-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, physical dependence, “chemical coping,” and diminished physical and emotional functioning.…